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means ignorant. Jahiliyyah refers to the pre-Islamic era that existed in Arabia. It is a combination of views, ideas, and practices that totally defy and reject the guidance sent down by God through His Prophets.
this is a long loose fitting garment worn by the Arabs.
means to strive. This can be any kind of striving in the way of God which involves either spiritual or personal effort, material resources, or arms. Jihad is also used to refer to a war waged by the Muslims for the defence or advancement of Islam; it's interests and ideals.
a tax paid by non-Muslims living in a Muslim State. Since the non-Muslims are exempt from military service and taxes imposed on Muslims, they must pay this tax to compensate. It guarentees them security and protection. If the State cannot protect those who paid jizyah, then the amount they paid is returned to them.